Birds of Lewis and Clark
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"Birds of Lewis and Clark"
Birds of Lewis and Clark ... Hawks, Harrier, Falcons, and Kite

New birds and already familiar birds seen by Lewis and Clark, with comments and notes from Patterson, Cutright, Holmgren, Johnsgard, Moulton, Sibley, Avibase, Cornell, Audubon, and Coues ... credits are listed at the end of the page ... camera icon indicates an image is online ... all images were taken by this webpage author, although not all images are from the areas that Lewis and Clark visited. NOTE: this page has not been proof-read, and, while care is taken, any errors (especially in dates) occurring (except as noted) are my own sloppy typing.

[New Birds] ... [Other Birds] ... [Hawks, Harrier, Falcons, and Kite] ... [Loons and Grebes]

Hawks, Harrier, Falcons, and Kite
  1. picture depicted American Kestrel
  2. picture depicted Bald Eagle
  3. picture depicted Cooper's Hawk
  4. picture depicted Ferruginous Hawk
  5. picture depicted Merlin
  6. picture depicted Northern Harrier
  7. picture depicted Peregrine Falcon
  8. picture depicted Red-tailed Hawk ... (Western Red-tailed Hawk)
  9. picture depicted Rough-legged Hawk
  10. picture depicted Swainson's Hawk
  11. picture depicted White-tailed Kite



  • American Kestrel ... or Merlin
    L&C "sparrow hawk"

    Image, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    American Kestrel, male (left) and female (right), Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Left image taken February 18, 2008. Right image taken November 16, 2008.
    Image, 2007, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Merlin, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 19, 2007.

    Holmgren suggests the Merlin, Falco columbarius (L. 1758), often called a "pigeon hawk", was also referred to as a "common" and "small" hawk.

    Lewis, April 13, 1805:
    "... saw the small hawk, frequently called the sparrow hawk, which is common to most parts of the U States. ..."


    Lewis, March 3, 1806, while at Fort Clatsop:
    "... The Crow raven and Large Blackbird are the same as those of our country only that the crow is here much smaller yet it's note is the same    I observe no difference either between the hawks of this coast and those of the Atlantic.    I have observed the large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk, and the hawk of an intermediate size with a long tail and blewish coloured wings remarkably swift in flight and very firce.    sometimes called in the U' States the hen hawk.    these birds seem to be common to every part of this country, and the hawks crows & ravens build their nests in great numbers along the high and inaccessable clifts of the Columbia river and it's S. E. branch where we passed along them ..."


    Commentary:

    • Patterson (conjectures, mostly from Coues, in Burroughs, 1961): Sparrow Hawk
    • Patterson (current AOU equivalent): American Kestrel
    • Patterson (comments): Comments on hawks: Lewis and Clark apparently only mentioned hawks generally and without descriptive details. The species listed are those presumed by Coues (as listed in Burroughs), given the ground covered and the habitats. These species are all common to very common species and the speculation that they were seen is certainly justified. I also received an e-mail regarding Peregrine Falcon, which was supposedly see on a nest. Neither Burroughs or Cutright mention any large falcons, but I would think that Prairie Falcon or Peregrine should have been encountered. When I receive a reliable reference, I will update the list (written 2002).

    • Holmgren:    HAWKS
      • "common" (4-13-05) and "small", American kestrel (formerly sparrow hawk) Falco sparverhus L. 1758, or merlin (formerly pigeon hawk) Falco columbarius L. 1758.
      • "sparrow hawk", see "common" above.

    • Johnsgard:   American Kestrel Falco sparverius:    This common and widespread small falcon, traditionally called a "sparrow hawk," was observed in the vicinity of the Little Missouri River on April 13, 1805. It was probably too common and too familiar for Lewis and Clark to have made repeated mention.

    • Moulton (April 13, 1805):    The sparrow hawk, otherwise the American kestrel, Falco sparverius [AOU, 360]. Holmgren, 30.

    • Moulton (March 3, 1806):
      • "crow": The crow is in fact the northwestern crow, a new species.
      • "raven": The subspecies of raven in the Fort Clatsop area is Corvus corax sinuatus; Lewis would have been familiar with C. c. principalis to the East. Both are now combined with the common raven.
      • "large blackbird": The blackbird seen in the West would be Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus [AOU, 510], while the bird he had seen in the East would more likely be the rusty blackbird, E. carolinus [AOU, 509]. Cutright (LCPN), 434; Burroughs, 248, 25556. NOTE: in other Moulton entries, the "large blackbird" is said to be the Common Grackle, and the Brewer's or Rusty Blackbird is said to be the "small blackbird".
      • "large brown hawk": Coues suggests that the large brown hawk may be a subspecies of the red-tailed hawk, or Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Holmgren calls it the northern harrier, Circus cyaneus [AOU, 331], also called the marsh hawk.
      • "small or sparrow hawk": The sparrow hawk is Falco sparverius [AOU, 360], now known as the American kestrel.
      • "hawk with long tail and blewish coloured wings sometimes called the hen hawk": Coues identifies as the northern harrier, whereas Holmgren considers it to be Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii [AOU, 333]. Coues (HLC), 3:875; Holmgren, 3031.


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  • Northern Harrier ... or Cooper's Hawk ... or Peregrine Falcon
    L&C "hen hawk", hawk with "blewish coloured wings"

    Image, 2009, Steigerwald Lake NWR, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2010, Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Northern Harrier, male (left) and Cooper's Hawk (right). Left image taken Octoer 12, 2009, Steigerwald Lake NWR, Washington. Right image taken February 15, 2010, Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Vancouver, Washington.
    Image, 2010, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Peregrine Falcon, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2010.

    Lewis, March 3, 1806, while at Fort Clatsop:
    "... The Crow raven and Large Blackbird are the same as those of our country only that the crow is here much smaller yet it's note is the same    I observe no difference either between the hawks of this coast and those of the Atlantic.    I have observed the large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk, and the hawk of an intermediate size with a long tail and blewish coloured wings remarkably swift in flight and very firce.    sometimes called in the U' States the hen hawk.    these birds seem to be common to every part of this country, and the hawks crows & ravens build their nests in great numbers along the high and inaccessable clifts of the Columbia river and it's S. E. branch where we passed along them ..."


    Commentary:

    • Patterson (conjectures, mostly from Coues, in Burroughs, 1961): Marsh Hawk
    • Patterson (current AOU equivalent): Northern Harrier
    • Patterson (comments): Comments on hawks: Lewis and Clark apparently only mentioned hawks generally and without descriptive details. The species listed are those presumed by Coues (as listed in Burroughs), given the ground covered and the habitats. These species are all common to very common species and the speculation that they were seen is certainly justified. I also received an e-mail regarding Peregrine Falcon, which was supposedly see on a nest. Neither Burroughs or Cutright mention any large falcons, but I would think that Prairie Falcon or Peregrine should have been encountered. When I receive a reliable reference, I will update the list (written 2002).

    • Holmgren:    HAWKS
      • "brown" (4-8-05) a familiar species, probably female northern harrier, Circus cyaneus L. 1766, Formerly marsh hawk.
      • "hen" (3-3-06) blue-winged. Common folk name for Cooper's hawk Accipiter cooperii, Bonaparte 1828; used less often for northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, L. 1758, or sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus, Vieillot 1808. These three species prey on fowl more than other hawks, which usually prefer rodents or reptiles, but some farmers give all hawks "hen hawk" name.

    • Johnsgard:   (Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus):    This hawk was not identified as such by Lewis, but he referred to seeing (while on the Oregon coast) the "hen-hawk," a species of hawk with a "long tail and blue wings," calling it the same kind as that found farther east. The male northern harrier has bluish wings and a distinctly long tail, and has been tentatively identified as the species in question, rather than the much rarer peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Since the harrier was not more specifically described as occurring in the Great Plains, it is not included as a positive occurrence.

    • Moulton (March 3, 1806):
      • "crow": The crow is in fact the northwestern crow, a new species.
      • "raven": The subspecies of raven in the Fort Clatsop area is Corvus corax sinuatus; Lewis would have been familiar with C. c. principalis to the East. Both are now combined with the common raven.
      • "large blackbird": The blackbird seen in the West would be Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus [AOU, 510], while the bird he had seen in the East would more likely be the rusty blackbird, E. carolinus [AOU, 509]. Cutright (LCPN), 434; Burroughs, 248, 25556. NOTE: in other Moulton entries, the "large blackbird" is said to be the Common Grackle, and the Brewer's or Rusty Blackbird is said to be the "small blackbird".
      • "large brown hawk": Coues suggests that the large brown hawk may be a subspecies of the red-tailed hawk, or Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Holmgren calls it the northern harrier, Circus cyaneus [AOU, 331], also called the marsh hawk.
      • "small or sparrow hawk": The sparrow hawk is Falco sparverius [AOU, 360], now known as the American kestrel.
      • "hawk with long tail and blewish coloured wings sometimes called the hen hawk": Coues identifies as the northern harrier, whereas Holmgren considers it to be Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii [AOU, 333]. Coues (HLC), 3:875; Holmgren, 3031.


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  • Red-tailed Hawk ... (Western Red-tailed Hawk)
    L&C "red tailed Hawks", "large brown hawk"

    Image, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2009, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Red-tailed Hawk, common phase (left), and dark-morphed phase (right), Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Left image taken November 16, 2008. Right image taken December 27, 2009.

    Lewis, August 12, 1805:
    "... I [saw] several large hawks that were nearly black. ..."


    Clark, November 29, 1805, while at Tongue Point, Oregon:
    "... The Shore below the point at our Camp is formed of butifull pebble of various colours. I observe but fiew birds of the Small kind, great numbers of wild fowls of Various kinds, the large Buzzard with white wings, grey and bald eagle's, large red tailed Hawks, ravens & Crows in abundance, the blue Magpie, a Small brown bird which frequents logs & about the roots of trees ..."


    Weather diary, November 30, 1805:
    "... rained and hailed with short intervales throughout the last night, Some thunder and lightninge.    3 large Hawks killed, which we thought delicious food ..."


    Lewis, March 3, 1806, while at Fort Clatsop:
    "... The Crow raven and Large Blackbird are the same as those of our country only that the crow is here much smaller yet it's note is the same    I observe no difference either between the hawks of this coast and those of the Atlantic.    I have observed the large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk, and the hawk of an intermediate size with a long tail and blewish coloured wings remarkably swift in flight and very firce.    sometimes called in the U' States the hen hawk.    these birds seem to be common to every part of this country, and the hawks crows & ravens build their nests in great numbers along the high and inaccessable clifts of the Columbia river and it's S. E. branch where we passed along them ..."


    Commentary:

    • Patterson (conjectures, mostly from Coues, in Burroughs, 1961): Western Red-tailed Hawk
    • Patterson (current AOU equivalent): Red-tailed Hawk
    • Patterson (comments): Comments on hawks: Lewis and Clark apparently only mentioned hawks generally and without descriptive details. The species listed are those presumed by Coues (as listed in Burroughs), given the ground covered and the habitats. These species are all common to very common species and the speculation that they were seen is certainly justified. I also received an e-mail regarding Peregrine Falcon, which was supposedly see on a nest. Neither Burroughs or Cutright mention any large falcons, but I would think that Prairie Falcon or Peregrine should have been encountered. When I receive a reliable reference, I will update the list (written 2002).

    • Holmgren:    HAWKS
      • "black" (8-12-05) and large, possibly the dark phase of rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus Pontopidan 1763. The ferruginous hawk, Buteo regalis, Gray 1844, also has a "nearly black" phase to match the description.
      • "brown" (4-8-05) a familiar species, probably female northern harrier, Circus cyaneus L. 1766, Formerly marsh hawk.
      • "common" (4-13-05) and "small", American kestrel (formerly sparrow hawk) Falco sparverhus L. 1758, or merlin (formerly pigeon hawk) Falco columbarius L. 1758.
      • "fishing" (5-7-05) osprey, Pandion haliaetus, L. 1758.
      • "hen" (3-3-06) blue-winged. Common folk name for Cooper's hawk Accipiter cooperii, Bonaparte 1828; used less often for northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, L. 1758, or sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus, Vieillot 1808. These three species prey on fowl more than other hawks, which usually prefer rodents or reptiles, but some farmers give all hawks "hen hawk" name.
      • "red-tailed" (11-30-05) Buteo jamaicensis, Gmelin 1788.
      • "sparrow hawk", see "common" above.
      • "white-headed, small" (9-19-05) black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus Desfontaines 1789. Formerly white-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, Vieillot 1818, now reclassified by earlier listing.

    • Johnsgard:   Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis:    As with the northern harrier, this hawk was not identified as such by the expedition, but Captain Clark noted hawks along the shoreline of present-day Thurston and Burt Counties, which Swenk thought might have been this species. Since the red-tailed hawk is by far the most common breeding hawk of the central Missouri Valley, and is a permanent resident all the way north to North Dakota, it was almost certainly seen during the expedition's Great Plains phase. Red-tailed hawk populations have increased significantly in North America during the last four decades, the birds having benefited from improved federal protection and having learned to exploit foraging opportunities along superhighways.

    • NOTE: Captain Lewis used the words "large red tailed Hawks" on November 29, 1805, while at Tongue Point, Oregon, even if he didn't use that ID while crossing the Plains.

    • Moulton (August 12, 1805):    Perhaps the melanistic color phase of one of various species of hawks, such as the red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis [AOU, 337], or Swainson's hawk, B. swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Coues (HLC), 2:486 n. 11. See also Holmgren, 30.

    • Moulton (November 29, 1805):
      • "large Buzzard with white wings": [California Condor]
      • "grey and bald eagles": The "grey and bald eagle's" are, respectively, golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos [AOU, 349], and bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus [AOU, 352]. Burroughs, 2048.
      • "large red tailed Hawks": Red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis [AOU, 337], a widespread species already known to science. Ibid., 208; Coues (HLC), 2:724.
      • "ravens and crows": Probably the common raven, Corvus corax [AOU, 486], and the American crow, C. brachyrhyncho [AOU, 488]. Burroughs, 248; Cutright (LCPN), 432.
      • "blue Magpie": Steller's jay, Cyanocitta stelleri [AOU, 478], first noted by Lewis on September 20, 1805. The captain gives a full description in an undated entry, ca. December 18, 1805. Burroughs, 24849.
      • "small brown bird which frequents logs & about the roots of trees": Perhaps the winter wren, Troglodytes troglodytes [AOU, 722], and if so, then new to science; see March 4, 1806. Burroughs, 252; Cutright (LCPN), 274, 438.

    • Moulton (March 3, 1806):
      • "crow": The crow is in fact the northwestern crow, a new species.
      • "raven": The subspecies of raven in the Fort Clatsop area is Corvus corax sinuatus; Lewis would have been familiar with C. c. principalis to the East. Both are now combined with the common raven.
      • "large blackbird": The blackbird seen in the West would be Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus [AOU, 510], while the bird he had seen in the East would more likely be the rusty blackbird, E. carolinus [AOU, 509]. Cutright (LCPN), 434; Burroughs, 248, 25556. NOTE: in other Moulton entries, the "large blackbird" is said to be the Common Grackle, and the Brewer's or Rusty Blackbird is said to be the "small blackbird".
      • "large brown hawk": Coues suggests that the large brown hawk may be a subspecies of the red-tailed hawk, or Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Holmgren calls it the northern harrier, Circus cyaneus [AOU, 331], also called the marsh hawk.
      • "small or sparrow hawk": The sparrow hawk is Falco sparverius [AOU, 360], now known as the American kestrel.
      • "hawk with long tail and blewish coloured wings sometimes called the hen hawk": Coues identifies as the northern harrier, whereas Holmgren considers it to be Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii [AOU, 333]. Coues (HLC), 3:875; Holmgren, 3031.

    • The Avibase database lists the "Western Red-tailed Hawk", Buteo jamaicensis calurus (Cassin, 1855), last listed in AOU edition 5, 33rd suppliment, and now a part of the Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, JF, 1788).


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  • Swainson's Hawk ... or Rough-legged Hawk ... or Ferruginous Hawk ... or "Harlan's" Red-tailed Hawk ... or Dark-morphed Red-tailed Hawk
    L&C "large and nearly black hawk", "large brown hawk"

    Image, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2009, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Large black or brown hawks:   Harlan's Red-tailed Hawk, left) and Dark-morphed Red-tailed Hawk (right), Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Left image taken Ocotber 26, 2008. Right image taken December 27, 2009.
    Image, 2008, Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Washington, click to enlarge Image, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Possibly the dark-morph phases (light morphs shown here) of Swainson's Hawk (left) and Rough-legged Hawk (right). Left image taken December 6, 2008, Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Vancouver, Washington. Right image taken, November 20, 2008, Ridgefield NWR, Washington.
    Image, 2013, McMinnville, Oregon, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    Another suggested possibility, the dark-morph variety (light-morph shown here) Ferruginous Hawk, McMinnville, Oregon. Image taken January 13, 2013.

    Lewis, August 12, 1805, in Montana heading towards Lemhi Pass:
    "... I [saw] several large hawks that were nearly black. ..."


    Lewis, March 3, 1806, while at Fort Clatsop:
    "... The Crow raven and Large Blackbird are the same as those of our country only that the crow is here much smaller yet it's note is the same    I observe no difference either between the hawks of this coast and those of the Atlantic.    I have observed the large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk, and the hawk of an intermediate size with a long tail and blewish coloured wings remarkably swift in flight and very firce.    sometimes called in the U' States the hen hawk.    these birds seem to be common to every part of this country, and the hawks crows & ravens build their nests in great numbers along the high and inaccessable clifts of the Columbia river and it's S. E. branch where we passed along them ..."


    Commentary:

    • Patterson (conjectures, mostly from Coues, in Burroughs, 1961): Swainson's Hawk
    • Patterson (current AOU equivalent): Swainson's Hawk
    • Patterson (comments): Comments on hawks: Lewis and Clark apparently only mentioned hawks generally and without descriptive details. The species listed are those presumed by Coues (as listed in Burroughs), given the ground covered and the habitats. These species are all common to very common species and the speculation that they were seen is certainly justified. I also received an e-mail regarding Peregrine Falcon, which was supposedly see on a nest. Neither Burroughs or Cutright mention any large falcons, but I would think that Prairie Falcon or Peregrine should have been encountered. When I receive a reliable reference, I will update the list (written 2002).

    • Holmgren:    HAWKS
      • "black" (8-12-05) and large, possibly the dark phase of rough-legged hawk, Buteo lagopus Pontopidan 1763. The ferruginous hawk, Buteo regalis, Gray 1844, also has a "nearly black" phase to match the description.
      • "brown" (4-8-05) a familiar species, probably female northern harrier, Circus cyaneus L. 1766, Formerly marsh hawk.
      • "common" (4-13-05) and "small", American kestrel (formerly sparrow hawk) Falco sparverhus L. 1758, or merlin (formerly pigeon hawk) Falco columbarius L. 1758.
      • "fishing" (5-7-05) osprey, Pandion haliaetus, L. 1758.
      • "hen" (3-3-06) blue-winged. Common folk name for Cooper's hawk Accipiter cooperii, Bonaparte 1828; used less often for northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, L. 1758, or sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus, Vieillot 1808. These three species prey on fowl more than other hawks, which usually prefer rodents or reptiles, but some farmers give all hawks "hen hawk" name.
      • "red-tailed" (11-30-05) Buteo jamaicensis, Gmelin 1788.
      • "sparrow hawk", see "common" above.
      • "white-headed, small" (9-19-05) black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus Desfontaines 1789. Formerly white-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, Vieillot 1818, now reclassified by earlier listing.

    • Moulton (August 12, 1805):    Perhaps the melanistic color phase of one of various species of hawks, such as the red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis [AOU, 337], or Swainson's hawk, B. swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Coues (HLC), 2:486 n. 11. See also Holmgren, 30.

    • Moulton (March 3, 1806):
      • "crow": The crow is in fact the northwestern crow, a new species.
      • "raven": The subspecies of raven in the Fort Clatsop area is Corvus corax sinuatus; Lewis would have been familiar with C. c. principalis to the East. Both are now combined with the common raven.
      • "large blackbird": The blackbird seen in the West would be Brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanocephalus [AOU, 510], while the bird he had seen in the East would more likely be the rusty blackbird, E. carolinus [AOU, 509]. Cutright (LCPN), 434; Burroughs, 248, 25556. NOTE: in other Moulton entries, the "large blackbird" is said to be the Common Grackle, and the Brewer's or Rusty Blackbird is said to be the "small blackbird".
      • "large brown hawk": Coues suggests that the large brown hawk may be a subspecies of the red-tailed hawk, or Swainson's hawk, Buteo swainsoni [AOU, 342]. Holmgren calls it the northern harrier, Circus cyaneus [AOU, 331], also called the marsh hawk.
      • "small or sparrow hawk": The sparrow hawk is Falco sparverius [AOU, 360], now known as the American kestrel.
      • "hawk with long tail and blewish coloured wings sometimes called the hen hawk": Coues identifies as the northern harrier, whereas Holmgren considers it to be Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii [AOU, 333]. Coues (HLC), 3:875; Holmgren, 3031.


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  • White-tailed Kite
    L&C "Small white headed hawk"

    Image, 2007, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
    Click image to enlarge
    White-tailed Kite, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken November 25, 2007.

    Clark, September 19, 1805, while in Idaho:
    "... I killed 2 Pheasents, but fiew birds    Blue jay, Small white headed hawk, Some Crows & ravins & large hawks. ..."


    Commentary:

    • Holmgren:    HAWKS
      • "white-headed, small" (9-19-05) black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus Desfontaines 1789. Formerly white-tailed kite, Elanus leucurus, Vieillot 1818, now reclassified by earlier listing.

    • Moulton (September 19, 1805):    Perhaps the black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus [AOU, 328]. Holmgren, 31.

    • In 1993 (AOU, 6th edition, 39th supplement) renamed the "Black-shouldered Kite" with "White-tailed Kite". "Black-shouldered Kite is replaced by White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) [328], because of a taxonomic split from a species that is confined to the Old World. ..." Previously the "White-tailed Kite" (which had at one time been called "White-tailed Kite") was grouped together with other Kites into the "Black-shouldered Kite".


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  • Sources:
    • Audubon, J.J., 1841-1844, The Birds of America, in 7 volumes;
    • AVIBASE, The World Bird Database website (2010);
    • Cornell University's "Birds of North America" website, 2010;
    • Cornell University's "All About Birds" website, 2010;
    • Cornell University's "Birds of North America Online" website, 2012;
    • Coues, E., 1893, History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis and Clark, Francis P. Harper publisher, in 4 volumes;
    • Cutright, P.R., 1969, Lewis & Clark, Pioneering Naturalists, University of Illinois Press;
    • Holmgren, V.C., 2003, Birds of the Lewis and Clark Journals, IN: Saindon, R.A. (editor), Explorations into the World of Lewis and Clark, vol.2: Lewis and Clark Trial Heritage Foundation, Inc., Great Falls, Montana (NOTE: Virginia Holmgren states: "The journals identify 134 species of birds with reasonable certainty -- name for familiar species, and for other with some guess at family likeness and whatever distinguishing detail could be noted. ..." Not all Holmgren entries are listed here.);
    • Johnsgard, P.A., 2003, Lewis and Clark on the Great Plains, University of Nebraska Press;
    • Moulton, G.
    • Patterson, Mike, 2005, "Birds of the Lewis and Clark Expedition" website, 2010;
    • Sibley, D.A., 2000, National Audubon Society's The Sibley Guide to Birds;

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